Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online) <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences</strong> (RBCIAMB) is an interdisciplinary journal concerned with the ecological, environmental, territorial, social, cultural, economic and political aspects of sustainability and environmental sciences. It is a space for the exchange of ideas, information, knowledge and technology, from the diverse perspectives and disciplines which must be combined to formulate effective solutions aiming at sustainable development. From the interdisciplinarity perspective, the journal examines issues in natural resources, environmental conservation, water resources, waste management, environmental and clean technologies, environmental management, social perception, environmental education, urban development, environmental health, public policies, sustainable agriculture, among other topics associated with the sustainability. The interinstitutional coproduction’s, involving national or foreign institutions, are especially welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">RBCIAMB is a quarterly publication, edited by the Brazilian Association of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering (ABES). Publishes original and complete articles, with peer review.</p> Zeppelini Publishers en-US Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online) 1808-4524 Sustainability indicators of the Brazil nut tree management <p>Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl) management, is a&nbsp;traditional activity that plays a key role in the economy of forestbased&nbsp;Amazon communities and in the conservation of forests.&nbsp;Nevertheless, some threats and critical points related to sustainability&nbsp;indicate to the need for establishment of monitoring procedures that&nbsp;can assist in the management of this natural resource. The overall&nbsp;aim of the research was to evaluate the MESMIS method as a tool&nbsp;to support the participatory definition of sustainability indicators&nbsp;to monitor Brazil nut management, and the viability of Brazil nut&nbsp;harvest over time. For that, we carried out a case study in the&nbsp;Porvir Community, RESEX Chico Mendes, Acre State (Brazil), aiming&nbsp;to integrate the perceptions of Brazil nut harvesters, researchers,&nbsp;managers, and technicians to define the indicators. The result was&nbsp;the generation of 18 strategic indicators to assess sustainability in&nbsp;the environmental, technical-economic and social dimensions.&nbsp;Assessment parameters, representing conditions that must be&nbsp;achieved for system sustainability, were collectively defined for&nbsp;each indicator. The main critical values attributed in the evaluation&nbsp;of the indicators are related to Brazil nut commercialization to&nbsp;intermediaries and oscillation in the annual fruit production. The use&nbsp;of the MESMIS method was considered appropriate to the studied&nbsp;context and can be recommended to similar non-timber forest&nbsp;product management systems.</p> Fernanda Lopes da Fonseca Oscar José Rover Lucia Helena de Oliveira Wadt Cleisa Brasil da Cunha Cartaxo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 56 4 551 563 10.5327/Z21769478889 Participatory process for mapping socio-environmental determinants of health by community agents: Contributions to urban management and planning <p>Studies about socio-environmental determinants are recognized as&nbsp;important to better understand the factors that influence health&nbsp;and quality of life, and how they operate to generate inequalities.&nbsp;This article reports the mapping of socio-environmental determinants&nbsp;of health, carried out by community health agents from the&nbsp;community of Paraisópolis, the second-largest slum in the city of São&nbsp;Paulo (state of São Paulo), seeking to analyze potential contributions&nbsp;of this participatory process to urban management and planning.&nbsp;As part of an action research study and following the stages of Paulo&nbsp;Freire’s Research Itinerary (Culture Circles), the mapping was carried&nbsp;out by integrating the Talking Map technique with Geographic&nbsp;Information Systems (GIS), in what has been called Participatory GIS&nbsp;or Geographic Information Systems with Social Participation (PGIS).&nbsp;Positive aspects were recognized and addressed by community agents,&nbsp;as well as several situations of socio-environmental vulnerability as&nbsp;a result of the agglomerated nature of the place, directly related to&nbsp;urban management and planning needs. This shows that, through a&nbsp;participatory mapping process, citizens cannot only better identify, but&nbsp;also more effectively communicate their needs and qualify intervention&nbsp;strategies in the territory. Therefore, it is possible to address the&nbsp;residents’ priorities more representatively, especially in places where&nbsp;traditionally marginalized social groups live. And also, community&nbsp;health agents, who play a central role in this research process because&nbsp;they live and work in the same place, are fundamental to boost,&nbsp;mobilize, and support the complex aspects involved, both in Primary&nbsp;Health Care, as well as in urban management and planning.</p> Renata Ferraz de Toledo Ana Paula Koury Carolina Monteiro de Carvalho Francisco Nilson Paiva dos Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 56 4 564 576 10.5327/Z217694781035 Methods to analyze spatio-temporal rainfall variability: application to the Pajeú river basin, Pernambuco, Brazil <p>This paper addresses a methodology for analyzing spatio-temporal&nbsp;rainfall variability as a tool to support action planning that could&nbsp;mitigate negative impacts and reduce conflicts over water use in&nbsp;the Pajeú river basin, located in the semi-arid region of the state of&nbsp;Pernambuco. We used daily rainfall data from 11 rainfall stations,&nbsp;between 1964 and 2016, provided by the Pernambuco Water and&nbsp;Climate Agency (Agência Pernambucana de Águas e Clima — APAC)&nbsp;and the National Water Agency (Agência Nacional de Águas — ANA).&nbsp;This analysis employed the RClimDex software to calculate rainfallrelated&nbsp;climate extremes indices, aiming at monitoring and detecting&nbsp;climate changes and alterations in the regional rainfall pattern.&nbsp;The results indicated a change in the rainfall pattern in the Pajeú river&nbsp;basin, and all climate indices obtained converge toward the increase&nbsp;in water scarcity in the area, contributing to the recurrent droughts&nbsp;that impact the region.</p> Janaina Oliveira Maria de Assis Athos Farias Menezes Werônica Meira de Souza Maria do Carmo Martins Sobral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 56 4 577 588 10.5327/Z21769478866 Adsorption of methylene blue dye by different methods of obtaining shrimp residue chitin <p>The textile industry, very important for the world economy,&nbsp;generates an effluent containing dyes, and which, when discarded&nbsp;in water bodies without proper treatment, can cause impacts to&nbsp;human health and the environment. One of these widely used&nbsp;dyes is methylene blue, whose characteristics are high solubility&nbsp;in water and its toxic potential, and which effects range from&nbsp;eye irritations, nausea, vomiting and even mental confusion.&nbsp;Among the potential adsorbents of this dye is chitin, which is a&nbsp;biopolymer extracted from the shrimp exoskeleton. Aiming at the&nbsp;development of a low-cost adsorbent material with potential use&nbsp;in the textile effluent treatment industry, the ability to remove&nbsp;methylene blue dye by shrimp residue chitin, obtained by eleven&nbsp;different methodologies, was verified. The three most efficient&nbsp;treatments reached approximately 75% of dye removal, proving the&nbsp;high adsorption power of shrimp residue. In addition to providing&nbsp;technological development of materials, the research brings socioeconomic&nbsp;benefits to the fishermen’s colony with the use of shrimp&nbsp;residue for the adsorption of other waste from the textile industry,&nbsp;contributing to the sustainability of both activities and reducing the&nbsp;environmental impact.</p> Iliane Muller Otto Luiza Beatriz Gamboa Araújo Morselli Dienifer Aline Braun Bunde Simone Pieniz Maurízio Silveira Quadro Robson Andreazza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-22 2021-10-22 56 4 589 598 10.5327/Z217694781170 Effects of funding on the collaboration and citation in environmental papers and the relationship with nation’s science and technology budgets <p>Input, output, impact, and processes are central indicators of the science,&nbsp;technology, and innovation production. The input is usually associated to&nbsp;investments made in science and technology, and it varies among different&nbsp;countries and scientific fields. Thus, the input can influence other impact&nbsp;indicators. Here, we evaluated the effect of the input data (i.e., number&nbsp;of funding) on process (i.e., collaboration) and output (i.e., number of&nbsp;citation) indicators of ecological research. Moreover, we detailed the&nbsp;effect of the number of funding on the collaboration and number of&nbsp;citations by each country (based on the nationality of authors). We found&nbsp;that most of published papers had some degrees of financial support,&nbsp;and that the production of papers with funding increased over the years.&nbsp;Funding had a positive effect on the collaboration and citation of papers;&nbsp;however, we observed that: in countries with higher investments in&nbsp;Science and Technology, the number of funding impacts positively and&nbsp;directly on the number of authors (collaboration) and in countries with low&nbsp;levels of investments in Science and Technology, the number of funding&nbsp;impacts positively and directly on the number of citations. Our models&nbsp;presented a low predictive power, but similar to other informetric studies.&nbsp;Our results indicated that impact indicators evaluated have an integrated&nbsp;structure, and the effects at one level can affect other levels. Nonetheless,&nbsp;the impact of the number of funding on informetric data can vary among&nbsp;countries; therefore, these results are important to the development of&nbsp;national policies and future informetric studies.</p> João Carlos Nabout Ruan Carlos Pires Faquim Rodrigo Assis Carvalho Karine Borges Machado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 599 607 10.5327/Z217694781043 Virtual water flow and water footprint as optimizer of water resource management in the state of Ceará, Brazil <p>The water exported indirectly by sending products to other countries,&nbsp;or vice versa, is called a virtual water flow and this can be measured&nbsp;through water footprint (WF) calculations, which represent the&nbsp;embedded water needed to manufacture a product. This present&nbsp;study aims to analyze the virtual water flow and the WF of the main&nbsp;products exported by municipalities in the state of Ceará in the year&nbsp;2019, in order to enhance the management of the state’s water&nbsp;resources. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the most commonly&nbsp;used multicriteria decision-making method in the world, was used&nbsp;to determine which product is more sustainably produced by the&nbsp;municipalities of Ceará, with the criteria: WF, price, and volume&nbsp;exported. The alternatives are at least two of the seven categories of&nbsp;products exported by the state where the “fruit or vegetable juices”&nbsp;class was preferred as the most sustainable. It was found that most&nbsp;cities in the state that export agricultural products use only one&nbsp;basin, which can lead to very low reservoir levels, while the other&nbsp;hydrographic basins in the state are underused. It is worth noting that&nbsp;the Metropolitan Basin concentrates on 11 out of 32 municipalities&nbsp;that export abroad and that it is responsible for supplying more than&nbsp;4,074,730 inhabitants, according to Brazilian Institute of Geography&nbsp;and Statistics (IBGE, 2019).</p> Ivana Sampaio Leite Rodolfo José Sabiá Andrezza Pereira Matos Camila Cavalcante Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 608 620 10.5327/Z217694781003 Quali-quantitative characterization of biogas with the temporal behavior of organic load on wastewater treatment plant with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors through measurement in full‑scale systems <p>This study aims to present the time behavior of wastewater flow&nbsp;parameters, organic matter, biogas flow, biogas composition, and its&nbsp;relations, measured through online sensors, in a municipal wastewater&nbsp;treatment plant (WWTP) operating full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge&nbsp;blanket (UASB) reactors, installed in the south of Brazil. WWTP has&nbsp;online measurement devices to evaluate some physicochemical&nbsp;variables of the sewage and the biogas. The COD analyzer (UV–&nbsp;Vis probe), ultrasonic flow meter, biogas flow meter, and biogas&nbsp;composition analyzer were the equipment used. The monitoring&nbsp;occurred for two time periods each of 72 h and one time period for&nbsp;48 h in the year 2018. Data were checked with descriptive statistics,&nbsp;data independence was checked through the autocorrelation Box–&nbsp;Ljung test, normality behavior was checked with several tests (Shapiro–&nbsp;Wilk, Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Lilliefors, Anderson–Darling, D’Agostino K2,&nbsp;and Chen–Shapiro), and Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used&nbsp;to evaluate the correlations among the parameters. The mean sewage&nbsp;flow was 345 ± 120 L.s-1; removed organic load was, in average, 48%;&nbsp;biogas quality values were 82.32% ± 3.62% v/v (CH4), 2.66% ± 1.19%&nbsp;v/v (CO2), and 3453 ± 1268 ppm (H2S); and the production per capita obtained was 4.51 ± 1.65 NL.hab-1.d-1. It was estimated an electric&nbsp;power generation of 3118.6 kWh.d-1, which is equivalent to an installed&nbsp;power of 130 KW. The behavior of removed organic load and biogas&nbsp;flow (Nm3.h-1), produced in the treatment plant, showed variable,&nbsp;periodic, and nonstationary time behavior.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Orlando Antonio Duarte Hernandez Ana Caroline Paula Gustavo Rafael Collere Possetti Mauricio Pereira Cantão Miguel Mansur Aisse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 621 629 10.5327/Z217694781059 Sertanejo biodigestor: a social technology, an alternative source of energy <p>The use of biogas as an alternative to using liquefied petroleum gas&nbsp;(LPG) for cooking food in the context of family farming is something&nbsp;recent and has ample room for growth. The aim of this study was to&nbsp;evaluate the use of the Sertanejo biodigester by farming families as a&nbsp;social technology for cooking gas production, as well as an alternative&nbsp;energy source. It also aimed to identify elements which contribute to&nbsp;disseminating this technology as an alternative to the use of firewood,&nbsp;charcoal and LPG. Quali-quantitative approaches were used following&nbsp;the exploratory method, with interviews and non-probabilistic&nbsp;sampling. A population with 132 units of biodigesters in the Agreste&nbsp;mesoregion of the State of Pernambuco was considered, with&nbsp;83 interviews being collected. The results indicated that the Sertanejo&nbsp;biodigester social technology provides an increase in the income of&nbsp;farming families, avoids the use of firewood and charcoal for cooking&nbsp;food and produces biofertilizer for crops. They also showed that its&nbsp;non-continuous use or deactivation is related to a lack of raw material&nbsp;and the need for maintenance. Given this scenario, its implementation&nbsp;must consider the availability of a raw material source in the production&nbsp;unit and the potential for biogas production from the existing herd and&nbsp;consumption demand. It is recommended to strengthen arguments&nbsp;of economic and environmental impact for low-income families to&nbsp;disseminate this technology; to encourage the use of biogas associated&nbsp;with other activities in the production system; and to incorporate&nbsp;biodigestor social technology in rural credit financing lines.</p> Reginaldo Alves de Souza Marília Regina Costa Castro Lyra Renata Maria Caminha M. de O. Carvalho José Coelho de Araújo Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 630 642 10.5327/Z21769478987 Energy potential and economic feasibility of biogas: case study of a landfill in Minas Gerais, Brazil <p>The final disposal of solid waste in landfills may result&nbsp;in the production of a clean and renewable energy through&nbsp;the exploitation of biogas generated in these locations. This study&nbsp;aims to estimate the methane production in a landfill, with a total&nbsp;population of 237,298 inhabitants, and a total generation of waste&nbsp;of 83,561.78 ton/year, in the last year of operation, located in&nbsp;the state of Minas Gerais and evaluate the economic feasibility&nbsp;of a biogas exploitation project in this place, for electrical energy&nbsp;generation. The methane production was estimated by the&nbsp;Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology,&nbsp;obtaining the maximum methane production value of 6,692,590&nbsp;mÑ in the last year of operation of the landfill. For economic&nbsp;feasibility analysis, the tools, such as net present value, discounted&nbsp;payback, and internal rate of return, were used with values of&nbsp;R$ 1,323,684.90 for 8 years, 4 months, and 12 days, and 9% per&nbsp;annum, respectively, demonstrating that the implementation of&nbsp;the project for the use of biogas at the landfill was viable, with&nbsp;positive economic return.</p> Tatiane Leticia de Carvalho Souza André Luiz Marques Rocha Daniel Brianezi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-22 2021-10-22 56 4 643 653 10.5327/Z21769478935 Evaluation of generalized extreme value and Gumbel distributions for estimating maximum daily rainfall <p>Extreme rain events can cause social and economic impacts in&nbsp;various sectors. Knowing the risk of occurrences of extreme events&nbsp;is fundamental for the establishment of mitigation measures and&nbsp;for risk management. The analysis of frequencies of historical series&nbsp;of observed rain through theoretical probability distributions is&nbsp;the most commonly used method. The generalized extreme value&nbsp;(GEV) and Gumbel probability distributions stand out among those&nbsp;applied to estimate the maximum daily rainfall. The indication of&nbsp;the best distribution depends on characteristics of the data series&nbsp;used to adjust parameters and criteria used for selection. This study&nbsp;compares GEV and Gumbel distributions and analyzes different&nbsp;criteria used to select the best distribution. We used 224 series of&nbsp;annual maximums of rainfall stations in Santa Catarina (Brazil), with&nbsp;sizes between 12 and 90 years and asymmetry coefficient ranging&nbsp;from -0.277 to 3.917. We used the Anderson–Darling, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), and Filliben adhesion tests. For an indication of the&nbsp;best distribution, we used the standard error of estimate, Akaike’s&nbsp;criterion, and the ranking with adhesion tests. KS test proved to be&nbsp;less rigorous and only rejected 0.25% of distributions tested, while&nbsp;Anderson–Darling and Filliben tests rejected 9.06% and 8.8% of&nbsp;distributions, respectively. GEV distribution proved to be the most&nbsp;indicated for most stations. High agreement (73.7%) was only found&nbsp;in the indication of the best distribution between Filliben tests and&nbsp;the standard error of estimate.</p> Álvaro José Back Fernanda Martins Bonfante ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 56 4 654 664 10.5327/Z217694781015 Atlantic seabob shrimp as biomonitor of Cu and Zn near port activities: is it really a suitable choice? <p>The trace elements concentration in the muscle of the Atlantic&nbsp;seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) caught in coastal fishing&nbsp;highlighted copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), both related to antifouling&nbsp;systems, as the main elements related to the intensity of port&nbsp;activities of southeast Brazil (~20—to 22ºS). The aim of this study is&nbsp;to analyze if the behavior of Cu and Zn in the muscle of this shrimp&nbsp;species is constant among different sampling sites, verifying if the&nbsp;species is suitable as biomonitor for these elements. The shrimps&nbsp;came from fisheries done in 2017 in Vitória, Anchieta, and Farol&nbsp;de São Tomé, southeast Brazil. After sampling, each individual&nbsp;was categorized for gender and maturity stage, measured, and&nbsp;weighted. Bulk muscle samples were freeze-dried for determination&nbsp;of Cu, Zn, and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen&nbsp;(δ15N). The data analysis verified if the concentration of Cu and Zn in&nbsp;male and female shrimps vary among maturity stages and sampling&nbsp;sites, and how the concentration of Cu and Zn is related to shrimps&nbsp;foraging area and/or trophic position. Both bioaccumulation and&nbsp;growth dilution occurred, but not in the same way for genders and&nbsp;sampling sites, with Cu showing more variability. Relationships&nbsp;between elements and shrimps foraging area and trophic position&nbsp;did not show a clear trend among the sampling sites. Regression&nbsp;models indicated moderate relationships, explaining 51% (Cu) and&nbsp;60% (Zn) of the association with the foraging area in Anchieta, but&nbsp;up to 8% in Vitória and Farol de São Thomé. For the trophic position,&nbsp;the models explained 33% (Cu) and 34% (Zn) in Anchieta and up to&nbsp;14% in Vitória and Farol de São Thomé. The results showed that the&nbsp;utilization of this shrimp species as biomonitor of marine coastal&nbsp;environments near port activities to monitoring the levels of Cu and&nbsp;Zn is not a suitable choice, at least in the spatial scale considered by&nbsp;this study.</p> Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto Keltony de Aquino Ferreira Braulio Cherene Vaz de Oliveira Carlos Eduardo de Rezende, Prof. Inácio Abreu Pestana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 665 672 10.5327/Z217694781062 Soil-cement blocks: a sustainable alternative for the reuse of industrial solid waste <p>This study aimed to analyze potential industrial solid waste that can&nbsp;be added to soil-cement blocks. A narrative literature review was&nbsp;conducted in the Scopus academic database, using as the search criteria&nbsp;keywords related to the topic, such as soil-cement, building materials,&nbsp;soil-cement blocks, soil-cement bricks, physical and mechanical&nbsp;properties, solid waste, life cycle analysis, and civil construction.&nbsp;A variety of industrial solid waste that can be incorporated into&nbsp;soil-cement blocks was observed, such as waste rock, sludge from&nbsp;water treatment plants, wood sawdust, polyethylene terephthalate&nbsp;fibers (PET), vegetable fibers from loofah, hemp fibers, rice husks,&nbsp;brachiaria grass, poultry eggshells, sugar cane bagasse, wheat&nbsp;and barley straw, welding slag, foundry sand, waste from quartzite&nbsp;mining, construction, and demolition, mechanical turning, pulp&nbsp;industry grains, and steel mill co-products. Among the investigated&nbsp;wastes, those that improved the physical and mechanical properties&nbsp;of the soil-cement blocks were grains from the cellulose industry, rice&nbsp;husks, Brachiaria grass, steel by-products with granulated soil-cement&nbsp;blocks and blast furnace slag. The waste that produced no satisfactory&nbsp;results was sludge from a water treatment plant, sugarcane bagasse,&nbsp;and vegetable loofah. Through this research, it was possible to verify&nbsp;that the behavior of soil-cement blocks is influenced by several factors&nbsp;in their manufacture, mainly regarding the type and percentage of&nbsp;incorporated waste. However, it is important to be concerned with its&nbsp;application in waste blocks so as not to increase the environmental&nbsp;impacts in the long term.</p> Tulane Rodrigues da Silva Daiane Cecchin Afonso Rangel Garcez de Azevedo Jonas Alexandre Izabella Christynne Ribeiro Pinto Valadão Nivam Alves Bernardino Dirlane de Fátima do Carmo Patrícia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 56 4 673 686 10.5327/Z21769478956 Survey of wildlife rescued and treated from 2014 to 2016 in Joinville (SC), Brazil <p>Natural ecosystems are in constant conflict with the growing and&nbsp;disordered urban expansion, arising from the mismanagement of&nbsp;human developments and infrastructure, facing an accelerated rate&nbsp;of deforestation and defaunation. The intense pressure on natural&nbsp;environments impacts the local fauna through various incidents,&nbsp;generating high mortality, such as hit-and-run, window-crashing, attacks&nbsp;by domestic animals, dissemination of diseases and electrocution.&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to carry out a retrospective survey of&nbsp;the wild fauna rescued and treated at a clinic associated with the&nbsp;environmental police in the region of Joinville - SC. A total of 379 wild&nbsp;animals were treated at the clinic from 2014 to 2016. Of these, 262&nbsp;(69.13%) were birds, 107 (28.23%) mammals, 9 (2.37%) reptiles and&nbsp;1 (0.26%) amphibian. The main causes of referral for clinical care&nbsp;were due to trauma (50.66%), seizures (1.32%) and other causes&nbsp;(48.02%), such as home invasion and orphaned puppies. Among the&nbsp;reasons for traumas, pedestrian accidents were the most prevalent,&nbsp;representing 39.58% of the cases treated, followed by animals found&nbsp;to be debilitated without a defined cause (31.77%), attack by domestic&nbsp;animals (14.58%) and window-crashing (9.89%). The data obtained in&nbsp;this study show a rich diversity of species in Joinville. These species&nbsp;are exposed to several anthropogenic challenges and barriers derived&nbsp;mainly from intense displacement and human invasion, causing many&nbsp;animals to move in order to adapt to urban areas.</p> Carolina Konkel Barbosa José Eduardo Basilio de Oliveira Gneiding Túlio Tácito Ribeiro Edevaldo Antonio Iachinski Igor Christian Magno Gonçalves Cláudia Turra Pimpão ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 56 4 687 696 10.5327/Z217694781006 Expansion of photovoltaic systems in multicampi higher education institutions: evaluation and guidelines <p>Considering the multicampi organizational structure of higher education&nbsp;institutions (HEIs), the expansion of photovoltaic (PV) systems previously&nbsp;installed in the facilities, the great potential for PV generation in Brazil,&nbsp;and the 2030 Agenda, the general goal of this research study is to&nbsp;evaluate and promote the expansion of the aforementioned PV systems.&nbsp;For this purpose, the PV system installed at the Federal Institute&nbsp;of Education, Science and Technology of Piauí comprising a future&nbsp;expansion is characterized by a thorough literature and documentary&nbsp;research. The solar resource available at the campuses of the institution&nbsp;was estimated using the second version of the Brazilian Atlas of Solar&nbsp;Energy. The technical–economic viability of the system expansion is&nbsp;assessed through the average parameters and minimum performance&nbsp;indexes required by the institution. Thus, it is possible to prove the&nbsp;effectiveness of the methodology to identify investment priorities and&nbsp;guide the construction and expansion of other PV systems, confirming&nbsp;that this process is technically and economically feasible as associated&nbsp;with strategic adherence, also bringing several environmental benefits.</p> Osvaldo Augusto Vasconcelos de Oliveira Lopes da Silva José Machado Moita Neto Marcos Antônio Tavares Lira Fabrício Higo Monturil de Morais ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 56 4 697 709 10.5327/Z217694781009 Effect of a temperature rise on metal toxicity for the aquatic biota: a systematic review <p>Ecosystems are subject to various stress factors, such as temperature&nbsp;rises due to climate changes and metal disposal. Thermal stress can&nbsp;amplify or mask the effects of metals on aquatic organisms. This study&nbsp;aims to carry out a systematic review on the effects of temperature&nbsp;rises due to climate changes on the toxicity of metals for freshwater&nbsp;organisms. Searches were made in different electronic databases&nbsp;and article selection was based on the following inclusion criteria:&nbsp;concordance with the question of a systematic review; publication in&nbsp;English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1960 and 2020; and the use&nbsp;of standard methodology. Forty-three articles were included, which&nbsp;were classified with respect to the year and country of publication,&nbsp;test-organisms and metals studied, temperatures tested, and the&nbsp;effects observed. In 80% of the studies analyzed, a temperature rise&nbsp;was responsible for increasing the toxicity of metals for the aquatic&nbsp;organisms. The temperatures studied contemplated the temperature&nbsp;rise predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change at&nbsp;the end of the 21st century. Brazil stood out among the countries for&nbsp;having the greatest number of research studies in this area, although&nbsp;there is still the need for an increase in studies in tropical climate&nbsp;regions. Based on the literature review, it was shown that the metals&nbsp;most studied were copper and cadmium and the test-organisms most&nbsp;used in the research projects were fish. The information obtained&nbsp;from ecotoxicological studies is essential to predict the effects and&nbsp;prevent the risks associated with the metal contamination of aquatic&nbsp;ecosystems due to climate changes.</p> Carla Juliana Nin Suzelei Rodgher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 56 4 710 720 10.5327/Z217694781010