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Investments in nanotechnology are increasing together with its application in daily products. The use of nanomaterials leads to their release in the environment and the contamination of rivers, which can cause toxicity to the aquatic biota and human beings. Nanomaterials are present in rivers of several countries. However, the detection of nanomaterials in river samples is difficult, so probabilistic methods are being developed to determine their concentration in aquatic environments. Fortunately, water treatments have proven to be effective in removing these nanomaterials. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the many pathways that nanoparticles can follow from their production to their final destination, along with their possible detection and toxicity, based on the search of manuscripts from ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, and Periódicos Capes databases.
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