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This study examines the relationship between the time-series analysis of climate, deforestation, wildfire, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the Eastern Amazon. Through a descriptive study with an ecological approach of an 18-year time-series analysis, we made a statistical analysis of two pre-established periods, namely, the rainy season and the dry season. On a decadal scale, analyzing the signals of climate indices [i.e., the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM)], the city of Marabá presents correlations between hospital admissions, wildfire, and AOD. This is not observed with the same accuracy in Santarém. On a seasonal scale, our analysis demonstrated how both cities in this research presented an increase in the number of hospital admissions during the dry season: Marabá, 3%; Santarém, 5%. The same season also presented a higher number of fire outbreaks, AOD, and higher temperatures. The AOD monthly analysis showed that the atmosphere of Marabá may be under the influence of other types of aerosols, such as those from mining activities. There is a time lag of approximately 2 months in the records of wildfire in the city. Such lag is not found in Santarém. The linear regression analysis shows that there is a correlation above 64% (Marabá) and 50% (Santarém), which is statistically significant because it proves that the number of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases is dependable on the AOD value. From the cities in the study, Marabá presents the highest incidence of wildfire, with an average of 188.5— the average in Santarém is 68.7—, and therefore the highest AOD value, with an average of 0.66 (Santarém, 0.47), both during the dry season. It is evident that the climate component has a relevant contribution to the increase in the number of hospital admissions, especially during the rainy season, where there are few or no records of wildfires.
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